This strange monkey decently frightened inhabitants of one village in China. They took her by the alien.
The animal part no hair, big eyes and small body. Monkey stealing food from a house until it was caught by the mistress. Now scientists find out what species of monkeys, it applies.
Leonardo Da Vinci’smysterious Mona Lisahas just gotten even more intriguing. The Italian genius apparently painted tiny numbers and letters into the eyes of the enigmatic painting, but their meaning is unclear.
The 500-year-old Renaissance masterpiece has long puzzled art historians, from Mona Lisa’s wry smile to the identity of the woman in the painting. Some believe it is Da Vinci himself, painted as a woman.
As for Da Vinci, he was a fan of riddles and secret codes and his paintings formed the basis of the best selling fictional work “The Da Vinci Code.” [ad#Google350x250]
The book by Dan Brown and the 2006 movie based on it starring Tom Hanks claimed the Mona Lisa contained secrets about the life of Jesus Christ.
The book postulated that Christ had a child with Mary Magadelene and established a blood line that exists to this day.
The real codes in Mona Lisa’s eyes may not be quite so consequential, but they are mystifying, nonetheless, not only for what they may mean, but also because of that fact that Da Vinci was able paint them so small.
The letters and numbers cannot be seen with the naked eye.
Italy’s National Committee for Cultural Heritage said the symbols were detected through high resolution images of the painting.
“To the naked eye the symbols are not visible, but with a magnifying glass they can clearly be seen,” said Committee President Silvano Vinceti.
“In the right eye appear to be the letters LV which could well stand for his name Leonardo Da Vinci, while in the left eye there are also symbols, but they are not as defined,” he said.
“It is very difficult to make them out clearly but they appear to be the letters CE or it could be the letter B. You have to remember the picture is almost 500 years old so it is not as sharp and clear as when first painted,” he added.
In the arch of the bridge in the background the number 72 can be seen or it could be an L and the number 2, he said.
The clue to the codes was found in a 50-year-old book about the painting that was discovered in an antique shop. It mentions the codes and symbols, Vinceti said.
“It’s remarkable that no-one has noticed these symbols before and from the preliminary investigations we have carried out we are confident they are not a mistake and were put there by the artist,” Vinceti said.
RALEIGH, N.C. – Now that The Rapture has occurred, we are counting down to the Apocalypse – October 21, 2011.
May 21st, 2011 has come and gone. The Rapture is over. Now the dread can begin because on October 21st, 2011… all of us that have been Left Behind, will die.
As crestfallen followers of a California preacher who foresaw the world’s end strained to find meaning in their lives, Harold Camping revised his apocalyptic prophecy Monday, saying he was off by five months and the Earth actually will be obliterated on Oct. 21. Here’s a recap of how we got here:
Marie Exley would have liked to start a family. Instead, the 32-year-old Army veteran has less than two months left on the planet and she is going to spend her time spreading the word: Judgment Day is almost here.
Exley is part of a movement of Christians loosely organized by radio broadcasts and websites, independent of churches and convinced by their reading of the Biblethat the end of the world will begin May 21, 2011.
Technically, May 21st is Judgment Day, or The Rapture, so the world won’t end that day, it’s just the beginning of the end… But, don’t worry, it will end VERY soon after. Probably by October 21st of this year – at the latest.
To get the word out, they’re using billboards and bus stop benches, traveling caravans of RVs and volunteers passing out pamphlets on street corners. Cities from Bridgeport, Conn., to Little Rock, Ark., now have billboards with the ominous message, and mission groups are traveling through Latin America and Africa to spread the news outside the U.S.
“A lot of people might think, ‘The end’s coming, let’s go party, let’s drink and have multiple sex partners” said Exley, a veteran of two deployments in Iraq. “But we’re commanded by God to warn people. I wish I could just be like everybody else, but it’s so much better to know that when the end comes, you’ll be safe.”
Last August, Exley left her home in Colorado Springs, Colo., to work with Oakland, Calif.-based Family Radio Worldwide, the independent Christian ministry whose leader, Harold Camping, has calculated the May 21 date based on his reading of the Bible.
Her husband left for Vegas to drink and spend his life savings on prostitutes.
Exley, in the meantime, is organizing traveling columns of RVs carrying the message from city to city, a logistics challenge that her military experience has helped solve. The vehicles are scheduled to be in five North Carolina cities between now and the second week of January, but Exley will shortly be gone: overseas, where she hopes to eventually make it back to Iraq.
“I don’t really have plans to come back,” she said. “Time is short.”
Not everyone who’s heard Camping’s message is taking such a dramatic step. They’re remaining in their day-to-day lives, but helping publicize the prophecy in other ways. Allison Warden, of Raleigh, has been helping organize a campaign using billboards, post cards and other media in cities across the U.S. through a website, We Can Know.
The 29-year-old payroll clerk laughs when asked about reactions to the message, which is plastered all over her car.
“It’s definitely against the grain, I know that,” she said. “We’re hoping people won’t take our word for it, or Harold Camping’s word for it. We’re hoping that people will search the scriptures for themselves.”
Camping, 89, believes the Bible essentially functions as a cosmic calendar explaining exactly when various prophecies will be fulfilled. But he’s 89, so he’s not so worried about the world ending. He’s already done all the living he wants to do.
The retired civil engineer said all his calculations come from close readings of the Bible, but that external events like the foundation of the state of Israel in 1948 are signs confirming the date.
“Beyond the shadow of a doubt, May 21 will be the date of the Rapture and the day of judgment,” he said.
The doctrine known as the Rapture teaches that believers will be taken up to heaven, while everyone else will remain on earth for a period of torment, concluding with the end of time. Camping believes that will happen in October.
“If May 21 passes and I’m still here, that means I wasn’t saved and I will be dead on October 21st. Does that mean God’s word is inaccurate or untrue? Not at all,” Warden said.
The belief that Christ will return to earth and bring an end to history has been a basic element of Christian belief since the first century. The Book of Revelation, which comes last in the New Testatment, describes this conclusion in vivid language that has inspired Christians for centuries.
Few churches are willing to set a date for the end of the world, heeding Jesus’ words in the gospels of Mark and Matthew that no one can know the day or hour it will happen. Predictions like Camping’s, though, aren’t new. One of the most famous in history was by the Baptist leader William Miller,who predicted the end for Oct. 22, 1844, which came to be known as the Great Disappointment among his followers, some of whom subsequently founded the Seventh Day Adventist church.
Ron Hardeski of Bayonne, New Jersey also predicted the world would end on February 27th, 2004 – his wife’s 50th birthday. The world didn’t end, so Ron beat his wife to death with a Bible. He’s serving a life sentence.
“In the U.S., there is still a significant population, mostly Protestant, who look at the Bible as kind of a puzzle, and the puzzle is God’s word and it’s predicting when the end times will come,” said Catherine Wessinger, a professor at Loyola University in New Orleans who studies millennialism, the belief in pending apocalypse.
“A lot of times these prophecies gain traction when difficulties are happening in society,” she said. “Right now, there’s a lot of insecurity, and this is a promise that says it’s not all random, it’s part of God’s plan.”
Past predictions that failed to come true don’t have any bearing on the current calculation, believers maintain.
“It would be like telling the Wright brothers that every other attempt to fly has failed, so you shouldn’t even try,” said Chris McCann, who works with eBible Fellowship, one of the groups spreading the message.
“If you want to say we’re crazy, go ahead,” she said. “But when you’re dead on May 21st (or soon after), you’ll know we were right. And you’ll thank us.”
The Bermuda Triangle (also known as Devil's Triangle and Devil's Sea) is a nearly half-million square-mile (1.2 million km2) area of ocean roughly defined by Bermuda, Puerto Rico, and the southernmost tip of Florida. This area is noted for a high incidence of unexplained losses of ships, small boats, and aircraft..
Click to view larger image
The Bermuda Triangle has become popular through representation by the mass media, in which it is a paranormal site in which the known laws of physics are either violated, altered, or both.
While there is a common belief that a number of ships and airplanes have disappeared under highly unusual circumstances in this region, the United States Coast Guard and others disagree with that assessment, citing statistics demonstrating that the number of incidents involving lost ships and aircraft is no larger than that of any other heavily traveled region of the world.
There is a common belief that a number of ships and airplanes have disappeared under highly unusual circumstances in the region called
Bermuda Triangle. Over 100 airplane disappearances and over
1000 lives lost since 1945
Many of the alleged mysteries have proven not so mysterious or unusual upon close examination, with inaccuracies and misinformation about the cases often circulating and recirculating over the decades.
The triangle is an arbitrary shape, crudely marking out a corridor of the Atlantic, stretching northward from the West Indies, along the North American seaboard, as far as the Carolinas. In the Age of Sail, ships returning to Europe from parts south would sail north to the Carolinas, then turn east for Europe, taking advantage of the prevailing wind direction across the North Atlantic. Even with the development of steam and internal-combustion engines, a great deal more shipping traffic was (and still is) found nearer the US coastline than towards the empty centre of the Atlantic. The Triangle also loosely conforms with the course of the Gulf Stream as it leaves the West Indies, and has always been an area of volatile weather. The combination of distinctly heavy maritime traffic and tempestuous weather meant that a certain, also distinctly large, number of vessels would flounder in storms.
Given the historical limitations of communications technology, most of those ships that sank without survivors would disappear without a trace. The advent of wireless communications, radar, and satellite navigation meant that the unexplained disappearances largely ceased at some point in the 20th Century. The occasional vessel still sinks, but rarely without a trace. It should be noted that both the concept and the name of the Bermuda Triangle date only to the 1960s, and were the products of an American journalist.
Other areas often purported to possess unusual characteristics are the Devil's Sea, located near Japan, and the Marysburgh Vortex or the Great Lakes Triangle, located in eastern Lake Ontario.
The Bermuda Triangle (a.k.a. the Devil's Triangle) is a triangular area in the Atlantic Ocean bounded roughly at its points by Miami, Bermuda, and Puerto Rico. Legend has it that many people, ships and planes have mysteriously vanished in this area. How many have mysteriously disappeared depends on who is doing the locating and the counting. The size of the triangle varies from 500,000 square miles to three times that size, depending on the imagination of the author. (Some include the Azores, the Gulf of Mexico, and the West Indies in the "triangle.") Some trace the mystery back to the time of Columbus. Even so, estimates range from about 200 to no more than 1,000 incidents in the past 500 years. Howard Rosenberg claims that in 1973 the U.S. Coast Guard answered more than 8,000 distress calls in the area and that more than 50 ships and 20 planes have gone down in the Bermuda Triangle within the last century.
Many theories have been given to explain the extraordinary mystery of these missing ships and planes. Evil extraterrestrials, residue crystals from Atlantis, evil humans with anti-gravity devices or other weird technologies, and vile vortices from the fourth dimension are favorites among fantasy writers. Strange magnetic fields and oceanic flatulence (methane gas from the bottom of the ocean) are favorites among the technically-minded. Weather (thunderstorms, hurricanes, tsunamis, earthquakes, high waves, currents, etc.) bad luck, pirates, explosive cargoes, incompetent navigators, and other natural and human causes are favorites among skeptical investigators.
There are some skeptics who argue that the facts do not support the legend, that there is no mystery to be solved, and nothing that needs explaining.The number of wrecks in this area is not extraordinary, given its size, location and the amount of traffic it receives. Many of the ships and planes that have been identified as having disappeared mysteriously in the Bermuda Triangle were not in the Bermuda Triangle at all. Investigations to date have not produced scientific evidence of any unusual phenomena involved in the disappearances. Thus, any explanation, including so-called scientific ones in terms of methane gas being released from the ocean floor, magnetic disturbances, etc., are not needed. The real mystery is how the Bermuda Triangle became a mystery at all.
The modern legend of the Bermuda Triangle began soon after five Navy planes [Flight 19] vanished on a training mission during a severe storm in 1945. The most logical theory as to why they vanished is that lead pilot Lt. Charles Taylor’s compass failed. The trainees' planes were not equipped with working navigational instruments. The group was disoriented and simply, though tragically, ran out of fuel. No mysterious forces were likely to have been involved other than the mysterious force of gravity on planes with no fuel. It is true that one of the rescue planes blew up shortly after take-off, but this was likely due to a faulty gas tank rather than to any mysterious forces.
Over the years there have been dozens of articles, books, and television programs promoting the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle. In his study of this material, Larry Kushe found that few did any investigation into the mystery. Rather, they passed on the speculations of their predecessors as if they were passing on the mantle of truth. Of the many uncritical accounts of the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle, perhaps no one has done more to create this myth than Charles Berlitz, who had a bestseller on the subject in 1974. After examining the 400+ page official report of the Navy Board of Investigation of the disappearance of the Navy planes in 1945, Kushe found that the Board wasn't baffled at all by the incident and did not mention alleged radio transmissions cited by Berlitz in his book. According to Kushe, what isn't misinterpreted by Berlitz is fabricated. Kushe writes: "If Berlitz were to report that a boat were red, the chance of it being some other color is almost a certainty." (Berlitz, by the way, did not invent the name; that was done by Vincent Gaddis in "The Deadly Bermuda Triangle," which appeared in the February, 1964, issue of Argosy, a magazine devoted to fiction.)
In short, the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle became a mystery by a kind of communal reinforcement among uncritical authors and a willing mass media to uncritically pass on the speculation that something mysterious is going on in the Atlantic.
PALO ALTO, CA –Mark Zuckerberg announced that Facebook will be shut down in March of 2012. Managing the site has become too stressful.
“Facebook has gotten out of control,” said Zuckerberg in a press conference outside his Palo Alto office, “and the stress of managing this company has ruined my life. I need to put an end to all the madness.”
Zuckerberg went on to explain that starting March 15th of next year, users will no longer be able to access their Facebook accounts. That gives users (and Facebook addicts) a year to adjust to life without Facebook.
“After March 15th, 2012 the whole website shuts down,” said Avrat Humarthi, Vice President of Technical Affairs at Facebook. “So if you ever want to see your pictures again, I recommend you take them off the internet. You won’t be able to get them back after Facebook goes out of business.”
Zuckerberg said the decision to shut down Facebook was difficult, but that he does not think people will be upset.
“I personally don’t think it’s a big deal,” he said in a private phone interview. “And to be honest, I think it’s for the better. Without Facebook, people will have to go outside and make real friends. That’s always a good thing.”
Some Facebook users were furious upon hearing the shocking news.
“What am I going to do without Facebook?” said Denise Bradshaw, a high school student from Indiana. “My life revolves around it. I’m on Facebook at least 10 hours a day. Now what am I going to do with all that free time?”
However, parents across the country have been experiencing a long anticipated sense of relief.
“I’m glad the Facebook nightmare is over,” said Jon Guttari, a single parent from Detroit. “Now my teenager’s face won’t be glued to a computer screen all day. Maybe I can even have a conversation with her.”
Those in the financial industry are criticizing Zuckerberg for walking away from a multibillion dollar franchise. Facebook is currently ranked as one of the wealthiest businesses in the world, with economists estimating its value at around 7.9 billion.
But Zuckerberg remains unruffled by these accusations. He said he will stand by his decision to give Facebook the axe.
“I don’t care about the money,” said Zuckerberg. “I just want my old life back.”
The Facebook Corporation suggests that users remove all of their personal information from the website before March 15th, 2012. After that date, all photos, notes, links, and videos will be permanently erased.
This unfinished witch drawing was abandoned as I already knew I had the pose right it was just a case of re-drawing it.
Drawing Witches From Imagination
Drawing witches from your imagination is quite easy what with all the great reference material out these days in print in books and online with other artists work, you can be soon on your way to drawing some great witch designs and artwork that you will be proud of, but let's assume that you need a bit of help with forming a good witch drawing from scratch, then this article guide will show you how.
Witch inspired designs and ideas.
Drawing Wizards, Witches and Warlocks are the same thing. But to draw witches for Halloween cards and birthday cards or even your own stories is a great thing, just take a look at other artist designs for witches.
Drawing wizards and witches in the area of fantasy are what I love to draw, but for our purposes here, with witches they can be anything you want them to be, for intance the classic witch look is of the wicked witch of the west from the wizard of oz, so you could go that route if you wished, but also witches could be dark a gothic super model looking types of witches. .
A Traditional witch
Here are detailed instructions for drawing the traditional witch on explaining my take on this I go through steps with actual drawings for each step so enjoy!.
The ideas beind the classic witch design go way back beyond the scope of a history lesson, so we shall just stick to this tutorial for our purposes. A black hat, a witches broom, a black cat and an ugly looking green face with a warty nose is the fashionable look of a witch that everyone recognizes.
Classic Witch Design
The classic witch design, complete with black witches hat and hook nose.
First Lines Of Your Drawing
Sketching a witch.
Source: Drawing A Witch - The First Draft
Step: Creating Those First Lines
A witch is made up of a few elements that make up the design, first the hat should be taken into account, for it is to be added in detail later, but we need to acknowledge that it will be added for our reference so we pencil that in with the rough features of the face.
I try to exaggerate the length of the face, sort of like a horse(why the long face?) and then the nose becomes like a hook nose that I can make bigger or reduce that later, because it doesn't matter at this point, all the things will become clearer at step 3.
Ideally your first lines of your with drawing need to be done quickly and almost spontaneous to create a sense of urgency that should be apparent in anyones work, doing it this way you can create some brought to life characteristics if you draw with energy.
Building On Your Witch Ideas
How to draw a witch.
Source: Drawing A Witch - Building On The Draft Sketch
Step Two: Building On Those First Lines And Concepts
In any drawing that you develop, try and think in terms of what will make a good drawing an excellent one, quick design choices usually worked well for me, but others it will not.
By expanding on rough drafts of your ideas you want to strengthen your creative belief that this drawing is going to work so you begin to reaffirm your positive drawing lines and build and refine them further, working out details and things like how much hair should show or how many wrinkles, or an evil grin, this type of thing.
I always get carried away at this point and there is no stopping me once I get drawing. I start off with one idea and end up with multiple drawings that I can spin off into separate drawings themselves so it pays to be a sketcher sometimes.
At this stage your drawing should be looking like it's going somewhere at least, not in the bin though, I never throw away a drawing that has gone wrong, because A) It's a waste of paper and B) Return to it another day and quite often it turns out better with a fresh look at it.
Bringing Your Witch Designs Together
Drawing a witch shading the witch.
Source: How To Draw A Witch - Add Shading
Step Three: Bringing Your Witch Design Together
If you draw like me. You often might start a few pages of A4 sized paper with a few rough sketches all sketched down, and then you can pick and choose different elements from each of these to merge together in your final design.
Your witch design must appear at this stage that it's character is showing through, whatever emotional expressions you place on that design, witches are usually evil, but you can draw them however you want, happy, sad or just back to evil again.
In this final stage with drawing, your details should beginning to surface and crystalize, and things should be looking a lot clearer now.
As with any imaginative drawing the key is your imagination and then from there you go of and try to build on top of your thoughts and ideas.
Good luck with your witch art and If you have any questions, just leave a comment below and I will get back to you.
The very bare bones of how you can draw a witch is here!
Final Inked Witch Drawing: See How It Looks More Alive
The final witch drawing it is just about defining the light and dark areas so that there is a separation of the different witch elements like the face etc.
Eva and Zoe, two girls I babysit of whom their father wanted a portrait
What is this page for?
I love to draw. I'm not an expert at it, but I know that it's something I enjoy.
People are what I especially love to draw because I love people and the challenge of portraying their personality along with their physical features. People vary so much in every feature and I love trying the different combinations of noses, eyes, smiles, and so on.
Graphite and charcoal are my media of choice. I can't paint for crap, unfortunately, so I do what I can with dry media. I also love the look of black and white; I think it adds drama and highlights the subject's basic features. I rarely ever use colour because I think it ruins the look of the picture.
I love how flexible drawing is; if there's something that bothers you about a person you can draw them and change whatever you want.
Below are my attempts to explain the way I draw because, while they will not be of use to everyone, a few tips here and there might fill in the gaps for those who can't quite get what they want out of a portrait. There are also a few samples of my drawings to reference.
General's charcoal pencils
Strathmore Charcoal pad
Materials I use
I like to use graphite and charcoal pencils because I think they're the easiest for me to manage. Personally my favourite pencils are the silly party favour pencils with the shiny embossed designs and coloured erasers; I like the way they sharpen and how solid the lines are. It's also easy to erase.
For charcoal pencils I use General's mediums and softs. Mostly I use the medium because I like the way it shows up on the paper and it's easier to blend. Charcoal is nice to use because you get good, stark lines that make for good contrast; it really shows up well on paper. However, I find myself using it less often because 1) it gets awfully messy, and 2) it's harder for me to control... it doesn't stay sharp as long and it the tip is usually wider than I'd prefer because I can't get the detail I want.
While I use the pencils at the ends of my cheap pencils sometimes, I also like to use a separate eraser for blending and major mess ups. I like gum erasers best, but the white normal kind works too.
As far as paper, I use Strathmore, either the Charcoal pad or Drawing. The drawing pad is best with pencil. The Charcoal pad is slightly textured more than the Drawing, creating a nifty effect when smearing the charcoal. You can use the Drawing pad with charcoal too, as I did with the Ziyi Zhang portrait (from People magazine) below.
To seal the charcoal onto the paper (so it doesn't rub off as easily) I usehairspray. Any kind works, so I usually use the cheap kinds.
People Magazine and other similar publications are great to obtain reference photos from because they often include feature sections such as "100 Hottest Bachelors" with close-up pictures of people. Also, teen magazines are ideal with their make-up ads featuring airbrushed models that make for smooth drawing.
Ziyi Zhang, Chinese actress
Kasey Kahne, racecar driver
Supposedly Rachel McAdams from "The Notebook"
From a hair product ad
Stacey Farber from "Degrassi"
My drawing process
While it's nice to experiment every once in a while, I like to stick with the same method and improve upon it.
I almost always draw portraits of people (which include mainly the face) because there is so much that a face shows of a person. I think it's also the most difficult part of a person to draw. Every feature differs so much from one to another; noses, eyes, everything is different. Get one thing out of proportion or forget a line here and there and the portrait can look like it's of a completely different person.
This is the order in which I draw a portrait, as far as features go:
1. Eyes. Start with the basic outline of both eyes (this way you can see if the eyes are proportioned correctly beside each other before you get too far; it's really easy to draw eyes too close to or too far from each other). Add the crease over both of the eyes (if there are creases; some people don't have them), then the eyebrows (eyebrows are just a lot of lines beside each other), then pupils and the irises, then eyelashes. Don't forget to define the eyelids as they touch the eye, as you can see in the Kasey Kahne portrait to the right (especially his right eyelid). From there you can shade around the eyes. This depends on the lighting. You can shade under the eye, around the top between the eye and the eyebrow, and around the temple. Shading involves using your finger (that's what I do, anyway, because you have more control); you can add more graphite/charcoal if rubbing removes a lot of the media. Also, you can use the eraser to define or blend.
2. Nose. This comes right after the eyes because the shading around the eyes usually helps define the shape of the nose. I lightly outline the nose, then add the little curve at the bottom middle of the nose, curve those out on either side to make the shape of the nostrils, then add the curves on either side of the nostrils that make the shape of the bottom of the nose. Drawing the nose involves a lot of shading; other than at the bottom and the sides there are few hard lines. Depending on the lighting there can be a lot or a little shading, just like the eyes. Usually the very tip of the nose is light, where the light would be shining on it.
3. Mouth. I like to start the mouth by making dots where the ends of the mouth will be. Then I draw out the lips (the top one is usually darker). Don't forget about the vertical, subtle lines in the lips; usually they're not hard but rather faint. There is also the little trench sort of thing between the top lip and the bottom of the nose. And depending on how hard they're smiling, there may be lines around the mouth. These can be hard or soft, depending on the person. When drawing teeth, be careful because if the lines between the teeth are too hard you can make the person look like an idiot. And of course, shade around the mouth, beneath the bottom lip, around the teeth, at the bottoms of each lip, and so on.
4. Outline of the face. This helps make the person look more finished, by defining the shape of their face and encasing the facial features. Around the eyes the shape curves inward, then curves back out around the cheekbones, straight or curves out around the cheeks, out at the jaw, and in at the chin. Shading is fun here because there can be a lot, and it can really define how the person looks. There is often a lot at the bottom of the cheeks, around the jaw and the temples.
5. Ears. I never pay too much attention to the ears, but they're weird because there is so much detail here. The curves of the inside of the ear depend on the person but generally are of the same idea.
6. Hair. This is one of my favourite parts. It's usually a lot of lines beside each other, like with the eyelashes. At the top of the head I make few lines or make them more faint where the light would usually be shining, and closer and/or darker where shadows would be. Where the hair meets the head you can either make pretty vertical lines if the hair flares up or just start drawing hair using downward lines if the hair just falls down. Curls and waves are fun, as seen in the picture of Rachel McAdams to the right; use the same idea of more and/or darker lines where there'd be shadow and fewer/lighter where light would shine.
7. Neck and anything else. This can include the collar of shirts, necklaces, etc. Usually I add a little more so it's not just a floating head on the page, but I don't really care about more than the face anyway, so this part isn't very important to me.