|One possible signature of a Higgs boson from a simulated proton–proton collision. It decays almost immediately into two jets of hadrons and two electrons, visible as lines.|
The Higgs boson or Higgs particle is a proposed elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics. The Higgs boson is named afterPeter Higgs, who along with others, proposed the theoretical model that predicted such a particle in 1964.The name "boson" is derived from the surname of the Indian physicist, Satyendra Nath Bose, a contemporary of the German physicist Albert Einstein. Bosons stands for one of the two fundamental classes of subatomic particles, characterized by Bose–Einstein statistics and all have integer spins. The existence of the Higgs boson and the associated Higgs field explain why the other elementary particles in the standard model have mass. In this theory, the Higgs field has a non-zero field everywhere, even in its lowest energy state. Other elementary particles obtain an effective mass through the continuous interaction with this field. The Higgs field interaction is the simplest mechanism which explains why elementary particles have mass. The Higgs boson—the smallest possible excitation of the Higgs field—has been the target of a long search in particle physics. One of the primary design goals of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland—one of the most complicated scientific instruments ever built— was to test the existence of the Higgs boson and measure its properties.
Because of its role in a fundamental property of elementary particles, the Higgs boson has been referred to as the God particle in popular culture, although many scientists regard this as a hyperbole. According to the Standard Model, the Higgs boson is a boson, a type of particle that allows multiple particles to exist in the same state. Furthermore, the model posits that the particle has no intrinsic spin, no electric charge, and no colour charge. It is also very unstable, decaying almost immediately after its creation.
On July 4, 2012, the CMS and the ATLAS experimental collaborations at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN announced that they observed a new particle that is consistent with the Higgs boson, noting that further data and analysis were needed before the particle could be positively identified.